GARY SNYDER is an environmental activist, poet, essayist, and lecturer. The Pulitzer Prize for Poetry (1975), the American Book Award (1984), the Bollingen Prize for Poetry (1997), the John Hay Award for Nature Writing (1997), and the Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize (2008) are among his many achievements. He is renowned as the Poet Laureate of Deep Ecology, and his poetry displays an immersion in both Buddhist spirituality and nature. He is often associated with the Beat Movement and the San Francisco Renaissance. Snyder has translated ancient Chinese and modern Japanese literature into English.