This popular manual has been updated and improved to bring it more current with modern earthmoving and trenching equipment, refined excavation techniques, stricter safety rules, and improved materials. Here you'll find how to enter and succeed in the underground utility business. Includes hands-on instructions for operating the equipment and doing the trenching, pipe laying and connecting work and answers to what causes so many skilled equipment operators and pipelayers to fail when they try to start their own business. Learn how to find the right kind of work, read and compute quantities from the plans, figure realistic crew and equipment productivity rates, consider job variables, calculate your O & P, then estimate and bid the job, and get the bonds you need. Also, how to deal with change orders and liquidated damages, choosing the right equipment, and handling safety issues.