This Third Update on Adult Learning Theory follows two earlier volumes on the same topic, the first published in 1993 and the second in 2001. Only one topic, transformative learning theory, can be found in all three updates, representing the continuing developments in research and alternative theoretical conceptions of TL. Thanks to a growing body of research and theory-building, three topics briefly touched on in 2001 are now separate chapters in this third update: spirituality and adult learning learning through the body narrative learning in adulthood Also new in this update is a chapter on non-Western perspectives on learning and knowing. New developments in two other areas are also explored: understanding the connection between the brain and learning, and how modern and postmodern ways of knowing are converging and are bring expressed in social movements. The concluding chapter identifies two trends in adult learning theory for the twenty-first century: attention to context, and to the holistic nature of learning in adulthood. This is 119th volume of the Jossey-Bass quarterly report series New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education . Noted for its depth of coverage, New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education is an indispensable series that explores issues of common interest to instructors, administrators, counselors, and policymakers in a broad range of adult and continuing education settings, such as colleges and universities, extension programs, businesses, libraries, and museums.