Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy is widely used as a research tool in bioch- istry and biophysics. These uses of fluorescence have resulted in extensive knowledge of the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules. This information has been gained by studies of phenomena that affect the excited state, such as the local environment, quenching processes, and energy transfer. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Volume 4: Probe Design and Chemical Sensing reflects a new trend, which is the use of time-resolved fluorescence in analytical and clinical chemistry. These emerging applications of time-resolved fluorescence are the result of continued advances in laser detector and computer technology. For instance, pho- multiplier tubes (PMT) were previously bulky devices. Miniature PMTs are now available, and the performance of simpler detectors is continually improving. There is also considerable effort to develop fluorophores that can be excited with the red/ne- infrared (NIR) output of laser diodes. Using such probes, one can readily imagine small time-resolved fluorometers, even hand-held devices, being used fordoctor's office or home health care.